Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

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CAS RN 107-06-2

Cancer studies: Mammary gland tumors
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Originating list
The list(s) or database(s) in which the chemical was identified as showing an increase in mammary gland tumors. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database, IARC: International Agency for Research on Chemicals Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man summaries, NTP TR: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical Reports, NTP 11ROC: NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens, CCRIS: Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information Service.
Carcinogenicity Potency Database, IARC Monographs, National Toxicology Program studies, Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System
Mammary gland tumor summary
A summary of findings related to mammary gland tumors, most often excerpted from IARC Monographs or the NTP 11th ROC, and, in some cases, supplemented by our evaluation of individual studies and reviews, is available for the priority chemicals and 67 others.
NTP 11th ROC: When administered by gavage, 1,2-dichloroethane increased the incidence of mammary gland adenocarcinomas in female mice and female rats
Citations to review sources and individual studies reporting mammary gland tumors are listed below.
Source Type
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man.VOL.: 20 (1979 (p.429) 1,2-Dichloroethane. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man.VOL.: 71 (1999) (p. 501) 1,2-Dichloroethane.
In female mice exposed by oral administration, produced mammary adenocarcinomas. In female rats exposed by oral administration, produced benign and malignant mammary tumors. Oral experiments are summarized here only and point to IARC 1979 for better coverage-v.20 p.429-448. In two inhalation studies, one in mice and one in rats, increased the incidence of tumors at various sites including the mammary gland. Inhalation mice Nagano 1998. inhalation rat: maltoni 1980 [the working group noted the low and variable survival rates] inhalation rat with disulfuram in the diet: Cheever 1990
Carcinogenic Potency Database 2005. Gold LS ST, Manley NB, Garfinkel GB, Ames BN. Summary Table by Chemical of Carcinogenicity Results in CPDB on 1485 Chemicals. 2005
Two of three studies reported mammary tumors: NTP TR55 and Maltoni 1980. One study did not report mammary tumors: Cheever 1990.
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens. 1,2-Dichloroethane
When administered by gavage, increased the incidence of mammary gland adenocarcinomas in female mice. Also increased the incidence of mammry gland adenocarcinomas in female rats (NCI 1978, IARC 1979, 1987, 1999).
Maltoni C, Valgimigli, L., and Scarnato, C. Long-term carcinogenic bioassays on ethylene dichloride administered by inhalation to rats and mice. In: B. Ames PI, R. Reitz, editor. Banbury Report 5 Ethylene Dichloride: A Potential Health Risk? Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; 1980. p. 3-33.
Primary Literature
Shows mammary tumors, but pretty comparable to background levels.
Cheever KL, Cholakis JM, el-Hawari AM, Kovatch RM, Weisburger EK. Ethylene dichloride: the influence of disulfiram or ethanol on oncogenicity, metabolism, and DNA covalent binding in rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1990;14(2):243-61.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. IARC describes this as a positive- but the treatment also includes disulfiram in the diet.
Nagano KN, T; Yamamoto, S; et al. Inhalation carcinogenesis studies of six halogenated hydrocarbons in rats and mice. In: Chiyotani KH, Y; Aizawa, Y, editor. Advances in the prevention of occupational respiratory diseases. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 1998.
Primary Literature
National Toxicology Program Technical Report 55, 1978
Primary Literature