Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review
We assigned each chemical into one of the following groups based on its major sources and uses: industrial chemicals, chlorinated solvents, products of combustion, pesticides, dyes, radiation and drinking water disinfection, pharmaceuticals, hormones, natural products, and research chemicals.Chlorinated solvent
Found in consumer products
"Likely" indicates that the chemical is contained in consumer products or traces of the chemical are present in products, including food and water, resulting in likely exposure for the general population. For some chemicals marked as "likely," consumer product uses have been discontinued, and this will be indicated in the "Use in Consumer Products" field.Likely
Food additive in US
Chemicals are classified as "Listed" or "Not listed" in the Everything Added to Food in the United States database developed by the US Food and Drug Administration.(22)Listed
California Proposition 65
Chemicals are labeled "Listed" or "Not listed" based on the Proposition 65 list of chemicals updated on May 27, 2005. Listed chemicals are "chemicals known by the State of California to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity"(19).Listed
Chemicals classified as "Likely" air pollutants are those likely to be found in indoor or outdoor air, including products of combustion and industrial chemicals that may offgas from consumer products, leading to human exposure.Likely
Current High Production Volume chemical
Chemicals are classified "Yes" or "No," based on 2002 production volume information submitted to the US EPA: "Yes" for >1 million pounds produced; "No" for < 1 million pounds produced. Some past production volumes are referenced, where appropriate, in the HPV comment column (20). In addition, Scorecard.org is referenced and noted in the HPV comment column when it was inconsistent with current production volume information obtained from US EPA (21).Yes
Production volume information
Production volume information is from the US EPA database on non-confidential production volume information submitted by companies for chemicals under the 1986-2002 Inventory Update Rule (IUR) using the most updated (2002) values (20). The Inventory Update Rule requires the submission of basic production data every four years on chemical substances manufactured (including imported) for commercial purposes in amounts of 25,000 pounds or more at a single site. Out of over 80,000 chemicals on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory, reports are required for approximately 9,000 substances. For those substances with annual volumes of 300,000 lbs or more per site, reporters also submit chemical processing and use information.> 1 billion
General population exposure
This field includes information describing pathways of exposure for the general population obtained from a variety of sources including: IARC Monographs (9), NTP 11th ROC on Carcinogens (4), NTP Study Reports and Abstracts (3), Hazardous Substance Database (10), and other sources located through use of the Google search engine.Detected at low levels in ambient and urban air, groundwater and drinking-water (IARC 1999 vol.:71 p.501). The greatest source of exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane for most of the U.S. population is inhalation of the compound in contaminated air. Dichloroethane has also been detected in food items (11th ROC). Also present in contaminated drinking water supplies due to its former use as a gasoline additive. General population may be exposed to 1,2-dichloroethane via inhalation of ambient air, ingestion of food and drinking water, and dermal contact with this compound and consumer products containing 1,2-dichloroethane (HSDB).
Use in consumer products
Summaries of chemical use in consumer products were developed from information found in US EPA SRD (11), NLM HPD (12), and Scorecard (12). Major uses were taken from IARC Monographs (9), NTP 11th ROC (4), NTP Study Reports (3), HSDB (10), and PAN Pesticides Database (13). If a chemical could not be found in these sources, we searched ToxNet (14), PubChem (15), and The Merck Index (16), and conducted searches by both name and CAS No. using Google.3 consumer products listed with EPA contain chemical: adhesives (SRD). Pharmaceutical preparations; rug/upholstery cleaners (Scorecard.org). Used mainly in the production of vinyl chloride, no longer registered as fumigant (IARC 1999 vol.:71 p.501). It once served as a solvent for processing pharmaceutical products; for fats, oils, waxes, gums, resins, and particularly for rubber; and in paint, varnish, and finish removers. It was also used as an insect fumigant for stored grains and in mushroom houses, a soil fumigant in peach and apple orchards, a cleaner for upholstery and carpets, a solvent in textile cleaning and metal degreasing, a lead scavenger in antiknock gasoline, a starting material for chlorinated solvents such as vinylidene chloride, a dispersant for plastics and elastomers such as synthetic rubber, an ore flotation compound, and as an extractant in certain food processes (11th ROC). Not currently registered for use as a pesticide in US (PAN Pesticides Database).
Occupational exposure to women
We extracted the total number of potentially exposed workers and the number of potentially exposed female workers from the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) 1981-1983; we listed specific industry classifications if >5,000 women were potentially exposed in that industry. Note: NOES does not include farm workers.NOES 1981-1983-Total Exposed: 83,246 Females exposed: 33,361 Occupational fields: various machine operators (especially textile). Occupational exposure is chiefly to workers involved in the production of vinyl chloride (11th ROC).
US EPA cancer classification
The US EPA Weight of Evidence Characterization of the chemicalís carcinogenic potential is listed: Group A: Carcinogenic to humans; Group B: Probably carcinogenic to humans. Group C: Possibly carcinogenic to humans. Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Group E: Evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans. NA: Not evaluated by US EPA (17).B2: Probably Carcinogenic to Humans, inadequate evidence
US EPA Weight of Evidence narrative
US EPA narrative statement of overall weight of evidence for carcinogenicity (animal, human, and other supportive data).Based on the induction of several tumor types in rats and mice treated by gavage and lung papillomas in mice after topical application
US EPA slope factor basis
Lists target organs used for estimating carcinogenic potency of the chemical (17).Oral, Inhalation: Hemangiosarcomas-male rat
NIOSH Pocket Guide - potential carcinogen?
This field indicates whether NIOSH identifies the chemical as a potential carcinogen for workers (yes/no) (24).yes
OSHA-Is medical surveillance required?
This field indicates whether medical surveillance is required for exposed workers and whether required surveillance includes breast exams or mammography (25).no
NIOSH Pocket Guide - cancer sites
Lists target organs from animal cancer bioassays (24).forestomach,mammary gland, circulatory system
Risk assessments not reviewed for this chemical