Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

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CAS RN 119-93-7

Major use
We assigned each chemical into one of the following groups based on its major sources and uses: industrial chemicals, chlorinated solvents, products of combustion, pesticides, dyes, radiation and drinking water disinfection, pharmaceuticals, hormones, natural products, and research chemicals.
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Found in consumer products
"Likely" indicates that the chemical is contained in consumer products or traces of the chemical are present in products, including food and water, resulting in likely exposure for the general population. For some chemicals marked as "likely," consumer product uses have been discontinued, and this will be indicated in the "Use in Consumer Products" field.
Food additive in US
Chemicals are classified as "Listed" or "Not listed" in the Everything Added to Food in the United States database developed by the US Food and Drug Administration.(22)
Not listed
California Proposition 65
Chemicals are labeled "Listed" or "Not listed" based on the Proposition 65 list of chemicals updated on May 27, 2005. Listed chemicals are "chemicals known by the State of California to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity"(19).
Air pollutant
Chemicals classified as "Likely" air pollutants are those likely to be found in indoor or outdoor air, including products of combustion and industrial chemicals that may offgas from consumer products, leading to human exposure.
Not likely
Current High Production Volume chemical
Chemicals are classified "Yes" or "No," based on 2002 production volume information submitted to the US EPA: "Yes" for >1 million pounds produced; "No" for < 1 million pounds produced. Some past production volumes are referenced, where appropriate, in the HPV comment column (20). In addition, Scorecard.org is referenced and noted in the HPV comment column when it was inconsistent with current production volume information obtained from US EPA (21).
Production volume information
Production volume information is from the US EPA database on non-confidential production volume information submitted by companies for chemicals under the 1986-2002 Inventory Update Rule (IUR) using the most updated (2002) values (20). The Inventory Update Rule requires the submission of basic production data every four years on chemical substances manufactured (including imported) for commercial purposes in amounts of 25,000 pounds or more at a single site. Out of over 80,000 chemicals on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory, reports are required for approximately 9,000 substances. For those substances with annual volumes of 300,000 lbs or more per site, reporters also submit chemical processing and use information.
General population exposure
This field includes information describing pathways of exposure for the general population obtained from a variety of sources including: IARC Monographs (9), NTP 11th ROC on Carcinogens (4), NTP Study Reports and Abstracts (3), Hazardous Substance Database (10), and other sources located through use of the Google search engine.
Swimming pool water test kits contain 0.5% to 1.0% 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine. Exposure may occur if the test solutions are emptied into the pool. Residual levels of 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine may be present in dimethylbenzidine-based dyes and pigments and in the final consumer products. Available data indicate that such contaminants occur in the parts-per-million range (11th ROC).
Use in consumer products
Summaries of chemical use in consumer products were developed from information found in US EPA SRD (11), NLM HPD (12), and Scorecard (12). Major uses were taken from IARC Monographs (9), NTP 11th ROC (4), NTP Study Reports (3), HSDB (10), and PAN Pesticides Database (13). If a chemical could not be found in these sources, we searched ToxNet (14), PubChem (15), and The Merck Index (16), and conducted searches by both name and CAS No. using Google.
No consumer products listed in SRD, HPD, or Scorecard. Structurally similar to benzidine and 3,3´-dimethoxybenzidine. More than 75% of 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine produced is used as a dye or an intermediate for producing dyestuffs and pigments. According to the Society of Dyers and Colourists, more than 95 dyes are derived from 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine. Approximately 20% of 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine is used to produce polyurethane-based high-strength elastomers, coatings, and rigid plastics. 3,3´-Dimethylbenzidine is used in small quantities by clinical laboratories in test tapes for the detection of blood and by water companies, swimming pool owners, and others to test for chlorine in water or air. 3,3´-Dimethylbenzidine is also used in a chemical test for the detection of gold (11th ROC).
Occupational exposure to women
We extracted the total number of potentially exposed workers and the number of potentially exposed female workers from the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) 1981-1983; we listed specific industry classifications if >5,000 women were potentially exposed in that industry. Note: NOES does not include farm workers.
NOES 1981-1983-Total exposed: 9,640 Females exposed: 6,005 Workers potentially exposed to 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine include dye makers, repackagers of 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine and dimethylbenzidinebased dyes, and personnel in clinical and analytical laboratories. Workers in a variety of occupations may be exposed to small quantities of 3,3´-dimethylbenzidine used for analytical purposes, including water and sewage plant attendants, chemical test tape or kit makers, and swimming pool service representatives (11th ROC).
US EPA cancer classification
The US EPA Weight of Evidence Characterization of the chemical’s carcinogenic potential is listed: Group A: Carcinogenic to humans; Group B: Probably carcinogenic to humans. Group C: Possibly carcinogenic to humans. Group D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Group E: Evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans. NA: Not evaluated by US EPA (17).
USA EPA notes
Any Silent Spring Institute notes on treatment of mammary tumors in US EPA risk assessment.
No carcinogenicity assessment
NIOSH Pocket Guide - potential carcinogen?
This field indicates whether NIOSH identifies the chemical as a potential carcinogen for workers (yes/no) (24).
NIOSH Pocket Guide - cancer sites
Lists target organs from animal cancer bioassays (24).
liver, bladder, mammary gland
Risk assessments not reviewed for this chemical