Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

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MX (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5h)-furanone)
CAS RN 77439-76-0

Cancer studies: Mammary gland tumors
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Originating list
The list(s) or database(s) in which the chemical was identified as showing an increase in mammary gland tumors. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database, IARC: International Agency for Research on Chemicals Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man summaries, NTP TR: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical Reports, NTP 11ROC: NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens, CCRIS: Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information Service.
Carcinogenicity Potency Database, IARC Monographs, Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System
Mammary gland tumor summary
A summary of findings related to mammary gland tumors, most often excerpted from IARC Monographs or the NTP 11th ROC, and, in some cases, supplemented by our evaluation of individual studies and reviews, is available for the priority chemicals and 67 others.
Only one study on MX exists and it reports a statistically significant trend of mammary tumors with increased dose.
Citations to review sources and individual studies reporting mammary gland tumors are listed below.
Source Type
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man.VOL.: 84 (2004) (p. 441) Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation
"In a single bioassay, MX induced malignant and benign thyroid and mammary tumours in male and female rats."
Carcinogenic Potency Database 2005. Gold LS ST, Manley NB, Garfinkel GB, Ames BN. Summary Table by Chemical of Carcinogenicity Results in CPDB on 1485 Chemicals. 2005
One of one study report mammary tumors :(2 references combined into one entry) Komulainen 1997 and McDonald 2000.
Komulainen H, Kosma VM, Vaittinen SL, Vartiainen T, Kaliste-Korhonen E, Lotjonen S, et al. Carcinogenicity of the drinking water mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone in the rat. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89(12):848-56.
Primary Literature

experimental details
Statistically signifant increase of adenocarcinomas: 3/50, 2/50, 5/50, 11/50 Tumors occurred in all dose groups at subtoxic levels. Updated with information from McDonald, as listed on CPDB.
McDonald TA. Evidence on the carcinogenicity of MX (3-Chloro-4-dichloromethyl)-f-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone): Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency; 2000.
Primary Literature
Provided updated information on Komulainen from personal communication. Nothing new on mammary tumors or other reproductive effects. Otherwise this is a review.
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens, Table 1. Chemicals nominated to the National Toxicology Program for in-depth toxicological evaluation for carcinogenesis testing in fiscal years 1988-2003.
2 Yr study was cancelled. Nominated by: AWWARF 1991, NIEHS 1994, U.S. EPA 1995. Rationale: - By-product of water chlorination - Direct-acting mutagen in Salmonella. Nearly 50% of the mutagenic activity of finished drinking water has been attributed to MX. No further testing. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/Results_Status/Resstatc/M920035.Html