Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review
Cancer studies: Mammary gland tumors
The list(s) or database(s) in which the chemical was identified as showing an increase in mammary gland tumors. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database, IARC: International Agency for Research on Chemicals Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man summaries, NTP TR: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical Reports, NTP 11ROC: NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens, CCRIS: Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information Service.Carcinogenicity Potency Database
Mammary gland tumor summary
A summary of findings related to mammary gland tumors, most often excerpted from IARC Monographs or the NTP 11th ROC, and, in some cases, supplemented by our evaluation of individual studies and reviews, is available for the priority chemicals and 67 others.NTP 11ROC: Female mice injected subcutaneously with progesterone showed decreased latent periods for the induction of mammary tumors by 3-methylcholanthrene. Rats receiving subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of progesterone had decreased latent periods and/or increased incidences of mammary tumors induced by oral administration of 3-methylcholanthrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, but only when the known carcinogens were administered first. An increased incidence of mammary tumors was induced in female rats fed 2-acetylaminofluorene in the diet and injected intramuscularly with progesterone. Newborn female rats receiving a subcutaneous injection of progesterone and a subsequent intragastric instillation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene developed increased incidences of mammary adenocarcinomas.
Citations to review sources and individual studies reporting mammary gland tumors are listed below.
Carcinogenic Potency Database 2005. Gold LS ST, Manley NB, Garfinkel GB, Ames BN. Summary Table by Chemical of Carcinogenicity Results in CPDB on 1485 Chemicals. 2005
Adamson RH, Sieber SM. Chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates. Basic Life Sci 1983;24:129-56.
Dalgard D. Induction, Biological Markers and Therapy of Tumors in Primates. National Cancer Institute Final Report of Contract No. N01-CP-40510. Vienna, VA: Corning Hazelton Laboratory Reporting period: July 1, 1994-March 31, 1997. Report No.: Study No. 421-166.
Flaks A, Flaks B. 3-Methylcholanthrene-inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat due to 3´-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene or 2-acetylaminofluorene: a comparative study. Carcinogenesis 1982;3:981-991.
Thorgeirsson UP, Dalgard DW, Reeves J, Adamson RH. Tumor incidence in a chemical carcinogenesis study of nonhuman primates. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1994;19(2):130-51
Gruenstein M, Shay H, Shimkin MB. Lack Of Effect Of Norethynodrel (Enovid) On Methylcholanthrene-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis In Female Rats. Cancer Res 1964;24:1656-8.
Shay H, Gruenstein M, Kessler W. Experimental mammary adenocarcinoma of rats: some considerations of methylcholanthrene dosage and hormonal treatment. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 1961;27:503-513
Shay H, Gruenstein M, Kessler W. Methylcholanthrene induced breast cancer in the rat: studies on mechanism of inhibition by large doses of estrogen. In: L. Severi E, editor. Morphological Precursors of Cancer. Perugia: Div. Canc. Res; 1962. p. 305-318.
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens, Table 1. Chemicals nominated to the National Toxicology Program for in-depth toxicological evaluation for carcinogenesis testing in fiscal years 1988-2003.