Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

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CAS RN 56-49-5

Cancer studies: Mammary gland tumors
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Originating list
The list(s) or database(s) in which the chemical was identified as showing an increase in mammary gland tumors. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database, IARC: International Agency for Research on Chemicals Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man summaries, NTP TR: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical Reports, NTP 11ROC: NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens, CCRIS: Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information Service.
Carcinogenicity Potency Database
Mammary gland tumor summary
A summary of findings related to mammary gland tumors, most often excerpted from IARC Monographs or the NTP 11th ROC, and, in some cases, supplemented by our evaluation of individual studies and reviews, is available for the priority chemicals and 67 others.
NTP 11ROC: Female mice injected subcutaneously with progesterone showed decreased latent periods for the induction of mammary tumors by 3-methylcholanthrene. Rats receiving subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of progesterone had decreased latent periods and/or increased incidences of mammary tumors induced by oral administration of 3-methylcholanthrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, but only when the known carcinogens were administered first. An increased incidence of mammary tumors was induced in female rats fed 2-acetylaminofluorene in the diet and injected intramuscularly with progesterone. Newborn female rats receiving a subcutaneous injection of progesterone and a subsequent intragastric instillation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene developed increased incidences of mammary adenocarcinomas.
Citations to review sources and individual studies reporting mammary gland tumors are listed below.
Source Type
Carcinogenic Potency Database 2005. Gold LS ST, Manley NB, Garfinkel GB, Ames BN. Summary Table by Chemical of Carcinogenicity Results in CPDB on 1485 Chemicals. 2005
3 of 5 studies show mammary tumors. Shay 1961, Shay 1962, Gruenstein 1964. 2 studies that did not note mammary tumors tumors were Adamson 1983 (supplemented by Dalgard 1997 and Thorgeirsson 1994) and Flaks 1982.
Adamson RH, Sieber SM. Chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates. Basic Life Sci 1983;24:129-56.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. Abstract is not available in PubMed. Only one dose level for 5 yr exposure/ 22 yr observation thereafter and only the number of total tumor bearing animals noted in CPDB (so no organ specific tumors).
Dalgard D. Induction, Biological Markers and Therapy of Tumors in Primates. National Cancer Institute Final Report of Contract No. N01-CP-40510. Vienna, VA: Corning Hazelton Laboratory Reporting period: July 1, 1994-March 31, 1997. Report No.: Study No. 421-166.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. Same CPDB info as above.
Flaks A, Flaks B. 3-Methylcholanthrene-inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat due to 3-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene or 2-acetylaminofluorene: a comparative study. Carcinogenesis 1982;3:981-991.
Primary Literature
@@A study listed by CPDB that did not report mammary tumors. Not indexed on PubMed and so abstract is not available. Based on the title, the authors were investigating hepatocarcinogenesis and may not have observed mammary tumors that may have occurred.
Thorgeirsson UP, Dalgard DW, Reeves J, Adamson RH. Tumor incidence in a chemical carcinogenesis study of nonhuman primates. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1994;19(2):130-51
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. Same CPDB info as above.
Gruenstein M, Shay H, Shimkin MB. Lack Of Effect Of Norethynodrel (Enovid) On Methylcholanthrene-Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis In Female Rats. Cancer Res 1964;24:1656-8.
Primary Literature
Shay H, Gruenstein M, Kessler W. Experimental mammary adenocarcinoma of rats: some considerations of methylcholanthrene dosage and hormonal treatment. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 1961;27:503-513
Primary Literature
Shay H, Gruenstein M, Kessler W. Methylcholanthrene induced breast cancer in the rat: studies on mechanism of inhibition by large doses of estrogen. In: L. Severi E, editor. Morphological Precursors of Cancer. Perugia: Div. Canc. Res; 1962. p. 305-318.
Primary Literature
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens, Table 1. Chemicals nominated to the National Toxicology Program for in-depth toxicological evaluation for carcinogenesis testing in fiscal years 1988-2003.
Not nominated for NTP testing in 1998-2003.