Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

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CAS RN 50-32-8

Cancer studies: Mammary gland tumors
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Originating list
The list(s) or database(s) in which the chemical was identified as showing an increase in mammary gland tumors. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database, IARC: International Agency for Research on Chemicals Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man summaries, NTP TR: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical Reports, NTP 11ROC: NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens, CCRIS: Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information Service.
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens , Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System
Mammary gland tumor summary
A summary of findings related to mammary gland tumors, most often excerpted from IARC Monographs or the NTP 11th ROC, and, in some cases, supplemented by our evaluation of individual studies and reviews, is available for the priority chemicals and 67 others.
NTP 11th ROC: When administered by gavage, benzo[a]pyrene induced mammary tumors in female rats. When administered by intraperitoneal injection, benzo[a]pyrene induced mammary carcinoma in rats.
Citations to review sources and individual studies reporting mammary gland tumors are listed below.
Source Type
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man.s. VOL.: 3 (1973) (p. 91)
Huggins and Yang 1962: increase of mammary tumors by oral in rats; Payne 1958 single ip inj in W10 Wistar rats caused mammary tumor increase.
Carcinogenic Potency Database 2005. Gold LS ST, Manley NB, Garfinkel GB, Ames BN. Summary Table by Chemical of Carcinogenicity Results in CPDB on 1485 Chemicals. 2005
Four of four studies did not report mammary tumors.
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, 15 Listings
Lists IARC 1973 v3 as reference for all benzopyrene treatments, including mammary tumors in female rats by gavage, mammary carcinomas in rats by intraperitoneal injection, and mammary carcinomas in female rats by intravenous injection.
el-Bayoumy K, Chae YH, Upadhyaya P, Rivenson A, Kurtzke C, Reddy B, et al. Comparative tumorigenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, 1-nitropyrene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine administered by gavage to female CD rats. Carcinogenesis 1995;16(2):431-4.
Primary Literature

experimental details
This reference came from 1-nitropyrene references. Increased both malignant and benign mammary tumors in female rats. 0, 50 umol/rat in 0.5 ml trioctanoin, 1/wk for 8 wks. 0/30, 8/30 Fibroadenoma, 8/30, 17/30 desmoplastic adenoma, 2/30, 7/30 adenoma, 1/30, 22/30 adenocarcinoma
Brune H, Deutsch-Wenzel RP, Habs M, Ivankovic S, Schmahl D. Investigation of the tumorigenic response to benzo(a)pyrene in aqueous caffeine solution applied orally to Sprague-Dawley rats. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1981;102(2):153-7.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors.
Chouroulinkov I, Gentil A, Guerin M. [Study of the carcinogenic action of orally administered 9, 10-dimethylbenzanthracene and 3,4-benzopyrene]. Bull Cancer 1967;54(1):67-78.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. In French. Only a 60 wk experiment (and no observation period), may not have been sufficient time at this dose (CPDB: 0.520mg) to produce mammary tumors.
Griciute L. Investigation on the combined action of N-nitrosodiethylamine with other carcinogens. IARC Sci Publ 1980(31):813-23.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. Very low doses, perhaps not strong enough to elicit mammary tumors. (CPDB3.23ug)
Horie A, Hohchi S, Kuratsune M. Carcinogenesis in the esophagus. II. Experimental production of esophageal cancer by administration of ethanolic solution of carcinogens. Gann 1965;56(5):429-41.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors. Abstract was not available from PubMed, but the title indicates that the authors were investigating esophagal cancer and may not have observed mammary tumors that may have occurred.
Huggins C, Yang NC. Induction and extinction of mammary cancer. A striking effect of hydrocarbons permits analysis of mechanisms of causes and cure of breast cancer. Science 1962;137:257-62.
Primary Literature
From IARC, review postponed.
Payne S. The pathological effects of the intraperitoneal injection of 3:4-benzpyrene into rats and mice. Br J Cancer 1958;12(1):65-74.
Primary Literature
From IARC, review postponed.
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens, Table 1. Chemicals nominated to the National Toxicology Program for in-depth toxicological evaluation for carcinogenesis testing in fiscal years 1988-2003.
Nominated for carcinogenicity by State of California 1989; under review. Rationale: - Environmental pollutant produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon products - Widespread exposure - Sufficient dose-response data needed for low-dose extrapolation to establish health based exposure criteria for humans environmentally exposed to B(a)P