Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Search the Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database

FD&C Violet no. 1
CAS RN 1694-09-3

Cancer studies: Mammary gland tumors
Print this page
Originating list
The list(s) or database(s) in which the chemical was identified as showing an increase in mammary gland tumors. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database, IARC: International Agency for Research on Chemicals Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man summaries, NTP TR: National Toxicology Program (NTP) Technical Reports, NTP 11ROC: NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens, CCRIS: Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information Service.
Carcinogenicity Potency Database, Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System, IARC Monographs
Mammary gland tumor summary
A summary of findings related to mammary gland tumors, most often excerpted from IARC Monographs or the NTP 11th ROC, and, in some cases, supplemented by our evaluation of individual studies and reviews, is available for the priority chemicals and 67 others.
IARC 1978: After oral administration, produced mammary carcinomas in female rats. It also increased the incidence of benign mammary tumors in female rats following ambient exposure.
Citations to review sources and individual studies reporting mammary gland tumors are listed below.
Source Type
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man.VOL.: 16 (1978) (p. 153) Benzyl Violet 4B. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation.
Administration by diet induced mammary tumors in female rats: Uematsu 1973, Ikeda 1974. Continual skin/fur contact induced benign mammary tumors in rats (sex unspecified): Mannell 1964.
Carcinogenic Potency Database 2005. Gold LS ST, Manley NB, Garfinkel GB, Ames BN. Summary Table by Chemical of Carcinogenicity Results in CPDB on 1485 Chemicals. 2005
Two of three studies report mammary tumors: Uematsu 1973 and Ikeda 1974. One study did not report mammary tumors: Grasso 1974.
Ikeda Y, Horiuchi S, Imoto A, Kodama Y, Aida Y. Induction of mammary gland and skin tumours in female rats by the feeding of benzyl violet 4B. Toxicology 1974;2(3):275-84.
Primary Literature
Uematsu K, Miyaji T. Brief communication: Induction of tumors in rats by oral administration of technical acid violet 6B. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973;51(4):1337-8.
Primary Literature
Grasso P, Hardy J, Gaunt IF, Mason PL. Long-term toxicity of Violet 6B (FD & C Violet No. 1) in mice. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1974;12(1):21-31.
Primary Literature
A study listed by CPDB 2005 that did not report mammary tumors.
Mannell WA, Grice HC, Dupuis I. The effect on rats of long term exposure to guinea green B and benzyl violet 4B. Fd Cosmet Toxicol. 1964;2:345-7.
Primary Literature
National Toxicology Program 11th Report on Carcinogens, Table 1. Chemicals nominated to the National Toxicology Program for in-depth toxicological evaluation for carcinogenesis testing in fiscal years 1988-2003.
Not nominated for NTP testing in 1998-2003.