Acrylamide, a chemical shown to cause mammary tumors in female rats, is formed during the heating of starch-rich foods to high temperatures.
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Major use
We assigned each chemical into one of the following groups based on its major sources and uses: industrial chemicals, chlorinated solvents, products of combustion, pesticides, dyes, radiation and drinking water disinfection, pharmaceuticals, hormones, natural products, and research chemicals.
Widespread exposure
If a chemical is a High Production Volume chemical, added to food, found in air pollution or consumer products, or causes greater than 5000 women to be exposed occupationally, it was judged to cause a likely widespread exposure to women in the United States.
High production volume chemical
Chemicals are classified "Yes" or "No," based on 2002 production volume information submitted to the US EPA in: "Yes" for >1 million pounds produced; "No" for < 1 million pounds produced.
Air pollutant
Chemicals classified as "Likely" air pollutants are those likely to be found in indoor or outdoor air, including products of combustion and industrial chemicals that may offgas from consumer products, leading to human exposure.
In consumer products
"Likely" indicates that the chemical is contained in consumer products or traces of the chemical are present in products, including food and water, resulting in likely exposure for the general population. For some chemicals marked as "likely," consumer product uses have been discontinued, and this will be indicated in the "Use in Consumer Products" field.
Females occupationally exposed
Whether >5,000 women were potentially exposed as determined from the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) 1981-1983. Note: NOES does not include farm workers.
Food additive in US
Chemicals are classified as "Listed" or "Not listed" in the Everything Added to Food in the United States database developed by the US Food and Drug Administration.(22)
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