Evidence From Humans
 
Print this page
Exposure to traffic emissions throughout life and risk of breast cancer: the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study
Nie, J., Beyea, J., Bonner, M. R., Han, D., Vena, J. E., Rogerson, P., Vito, D., Muti, P., Trevisan, M., Edge, S. B., Freudenheim, J. L. Cancer Causes Control. 2007. 18:9, 947-55.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - Air Pollution
Study design
Population based case-control
Funding agency
U.S. Army Medical Research Grants NCI NIH
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Stratified analysis based on menopausal status
Number of Controls
Controls: 1,944
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
The WEB study included women between the ages of 35 and 79 who were living in Erie and Niagara counties in western New York during or after 1960. Cases were women with primary incident breast cancer diagnosed 1996-2001, identified from hospital pathology departments and one breast surgeon's practice. Controls with no history of cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer were randomly selected from residents of the counties (
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Geocoded self-reported residential histories in Erie and Niagara counties were used to model ambient B[a]P from traffic emissions. The traffic-PAH model was a Buffalo version -- using regional traffic and meteorological data -- of the one developed for th
How exposure was measured
GIS/geographic location Questionnaire, in person
Exposure assessment comment
Historical data was limited to addresses within Erie and Niagara counties beginning in 1960, preventing assessment of exposure at birth residence, given that most women in the study were born < 1960. The parent traffic model -- from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project -- was validated with environmental B(a)P samples and PAH-DNA adducts in blood. Limitations include not accounting for a street canyon effect, historical changes to the road network, industrial emissions, and exposure that occurred away from the home. Any misclassification would likely be non-differential across case-control status.
Early life exposures considered
Yes, estimated exposure at menarche and at first birth
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary incident breast cancer
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Age, race, education, BMI, medical history, age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first birth, number of births, family history of breast cancer, previous benign breast disease, and occupational history.
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked Yes. No, if not.
No
Strength of associations reported
Among premenopausal women, based on traffic emissions exposure at menarche (187 cases/347 controls):
2nd vs. 1st quartile: 1.86 (95% CI 0.83-4.15)
3rd vs. 1st quartile: 2.14 (95% CI 0.93-4.94)
4th vs. 1st quartile: 2.07 (95% CI 0.91-4.72)
4th vs. 1st quartile, non-smokers: 6.67 (95% CI 1.74-25.67)
4th vs. 1st quartile, ever smokers: 0.80 (95% CI 0.27-2.36)

Among premenopausal women, based on traffic emissions exposure at first birth (181 cases/371 controls):
4th vs. 1st quartile: aOR 1.22 (95% CI 0.44-3.36)
4th vs. 1st quartile, non-smokers: aOR 2.06 (95% CI 0.44-9.73)
4th vs. 1st quartile, ever smokers: aOR 0.82 (95% CI 0.23-2.92)

Among postmenopausal women, based on traffic emissions exposure at first birth (221 cases/308 controls):
4th vs. 1st quartile: aOR 2.58 (95% CI 1.15-5.83)
4th vs. 1st quartile, non-smokers: aOR 6.23 (95% CI 1.70-22.82)
4th vs. 1st quartile, ever smokers: aOR 1.35 (95% CI 0.47-3.83)
Results Comments
p-interaction = 0.01 for smoking status and traffic-related PAH exposure at menarche among premenopausal women. p-interaction = 0.06 for smoking status and traffic-related PAH exposure at first birth among postmenopausal women. Analyses by hormone receptor status did not differ from overall results (data not shown).
Author address
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, 270 Farber Hall, University at Buffalo, 3435 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. jingnie@buffalo.edu