Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Intrauterine environment and breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Poland
Park, S. K., Garcia-Closas, M., Lissowska, J., Sherman, M. E., McGlynn, K. A., Peponska, B., Bardin-Mikoajczak, A., Zatonski, W., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Brinton, L. A. Int J Cancer. 2006. 2136-41.
Topic area
Early life exposures
Study design
Population-based case-control study
Funding agency
Intramural Research Program, NCI, NIH
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Number of Controls
Control: 2502
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Elighble cases conisted of all women 20-74 years of age who were newly diagnosed with either histologically or cytologically confirmed incidence in situ or invasive breast cancer. Eligible controls included women who did not have a history of breast cancer, frequency matched to the anticipated distribution of cases by 5-year age group and city of residence. Ex: The reasons for nonparticipation were refusal, inability to locate and other cases, including subjects' death.
Comment about participation selection
In situ cases were included as breast cancer cases.
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Birth weight, maternal age, gestational age, twinning
How exposure was measured
Other: Personal interview
Exposure assessment comment
Perinatal characteristics reported by parents
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary breast cancer (either histologically or cytologically confirmed incidence in situ or invasive breast cancer)
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Age, education, age at menarche, menopausal status and age at menopause, age at first full-term pregnancy, number of full-term pregnancies, family history of breast cancer among first degree relatives, mammography screening and current BMI
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Multiple logistic regression was used to derive crude and adjusted effect etimates. The effects of various modifying factors, including birth order and age at diagnosis, were also considered.
Strength of associations reported
Birth weight: 1.54 (1.08, 2.19)
Maternal age: 0.91 (0.66, 1.27)
Gestational age: 1.01 (0.75, 1.34)
Twinning: 0.76 (0.49, 1.16)
Results Comments
Breast cancer risk is related to birth weight but is not related to maternal age, gestational age and multiple birth.
Author address
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.