Evidence From Humans
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GSTM1 null genotype, red meat consumption and breast cancer risk (The Netherlands)
van der Hel, O. L., Peeters, P. H., Hein, D. W., Doll, M. A., Grobbee, D. E., Ocke, M., Bueno de Mesquita, H. B. Cancer Causes and Control. 2004. 15:3, 295-303.
Topic area
Diet - Genetic variability
Study design
Nested case-control
Funding agency
NCI Other: Dutch Cancer Society Other: Sineke ten
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Number of Controls
Contols: 300
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Participants of the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Primary incident cases identified by the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Random selection of cohort members, marched to cases in five year age intervals, residence, and menopausal status.
Exposures investigated
FFQ for meat consumption, allele frequencies of NAT1, NAT2, GSTT1, GSTM1, used PCR RFLP
How exposure was measured
Biological Questionnaire, self-administered
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Logistic regression analysis of genotype and dietart exposure, including interactions
Strength of associations reported
No significant association between total meat, processed meat, fresh meat, red meat or white meat consumption and BC risk. No significant association between NAT1, NAT2, or GST1 genotype and BC risk:Those with GSTM1 null genotype showed AOR=1.46 (1.02-2.09). Regardless of degree of red meat consumption, those with GSTM1 null genotype showed increased risk; But this increase was attributable to genotype alone, not a significant interaction with diet. Among postmenopausal women only, the there was a significant interaction between GSTM1 genotype and red meat consumption; Postmenopausal women showed significant increased risk OR>4, whereas premenopausal women showed significant decreased risk.
Results Comments
Did not assess how well cooked meats were prepared
Author address
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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