Evidence From Humans
 
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Risk factors for breast cancer in Japan, with special attention to anthropometric measurements and reproductive history
Tung, H. T., Tsukuma, H., Tanaka, H., Kinoshita, N., Koyama, Y., Ajiki, W., Oshima, A., Koyama, H. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1999. 29:3, 137-46.
Topic area
Body size
Study design
Hospital based case-control
Funding agency
Other: Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare
Study Participants
Number of Cases
Cases: 376 (190 premenopausal) (182 postmenopausal) (4 unknown)
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Number of Controls
Controls: 430 (119 premenopausal) (282 postmenopausal) (29 unknown)
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Patients at Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases between 1990 and 1995, and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1990 and 1995 (cases) Ex: Women with a previous diagnosis of cancer, women with other medical conditions such as: changes in weight related to illness, nutritional and metabolic disease, heart failure or cerebrovascular disease, Parkinsons, neoplasms of uncertain behavior, tuberculosis, and anemia
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: Results from other Japanese studies included in analysis Limitations: Anthropometric data self-reported, high level of non-response (53.5% of cases and 23.5% of controls), possible bias caused by using hospital based controls, and many more postmenopausal controls than premenopausal controls (119 pre to 282 post)
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Weight, Height, BMI
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered
Exposure assessment comment
Anthropometric data self-reported
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
No
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled, Confounders: age, age at menarche, age at first full term pregnancy, height, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and education
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
No
Description of major analysis
Effect modifiers: menopausal status
Strength of associations reported
Association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and weight, >58 kg vs. 47 kg, OR=0.90(0.38-2.08) trend p=0.592
Association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and height, >159 cm vs. 149 cm, OR=2.29(0.93-5.65) trend p=0.248
Association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and BMI, >25.1 vs. 20.0, OR=0.98(0.46-2.06) trend p=0.486
Association between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and weight, >58 kg vs. 47 kg, OR=2.16(1.19-3.91) trend p=0.033
Association between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and height, >159 cm vs. 149 cm, OR=0.91(0.84-0.98) trend p=0.696
Association between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and BMI, >25.1 vs. 20.0, OR=1.90(1.10-3.24) trend p=0.037
Association between breast cancer risk and weight, >58 kg vs. 47 kg, OR=1.75(1.11-2.75) trend p=0.017
Association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and BMI, >25.1 vs. 20.0, OR=1.73(1.15-2.62) trend p=0.039
Author address
Department of Cancer Control and Statistics, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Japan.
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