Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Traffic air pollution and risk of death from ovarian cancer in Taiwan: fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as a proxy marker
Hung, L. J., Chan, T. F., Wu, C. H., Chiu, H. F., Yang, C. Y. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012. 75:3, 174-82.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - Air pollution Vehicle exhaust
Study design
Funding agency
National Science Council, Taiwan
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
No analyses based on menopausal status
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Breast cancer mortality in 61 municipalities from 1999-2008 from Taiwan Department of Health.
Comment about participation selection
Mortality was age standardized to the 2000 world population.
Exposures investigated
Residence on death certificate linked to daily average PM2.5 from Taiwan EPA's 61 air monitoring stations, in 61 different municipalities, from 2006-2009. Municipalities with low PM2.5 served as the study's reference group.
How exposure was measured
Environmental sample
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Age, municipal urbanization level and fertility rates
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Strength of associations reported
Compared to women living in areas with <30.39 ug/m3 PM2.5:
Women living in areas with 30.48-39.41 ug/m3 PM2.5: RR 1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.32)
Women living in areas with 39.48-51.10 ug/m3 PM2.5: RR 1.19 (95% CI 1.03-1.38)
Author address
Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, and Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.