Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Opposing effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on mammary carcinogenesis: The Singapore Chinese Health Study
Gago-Dominguez, M., Yuan, J. M., Sun, C. L., Lee, H. P., Yu, M. C. Br J Cancer. 2003. 89:9, 1686-92.
Study design
Prospective cohort
Funding agency
Not reported
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal and premenopausal combined
Number in Cohort
Cohort 34,734
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Women 45-74 years from one of the two major dialect groups in Singapore, Hokkien and Cantonese and participating in the Singapore Chinese Health Study Ex: Women who reported a history of cancer at baseline
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Fat (total, saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated)
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person, FFQ
Exposure assessment comment
Similar diet among participant, narrow range of fat intake
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: BMI, menopausal status
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Adjusted RR with 95%CI, highest versus lowest quartile of intake, subgroups for N3-fatty acid with stratification for menopausal status, follow-up 2-7.7 years
Strength of associations reported
Total fat: 0.94 (0.68-1.31); saturated fat: 0.92 (0.67-1.26); monounsaturated fat: 1.02 (0.73-1.43); polyunsaturated fat: 1.27 (0.92-1.74)
Results Comments
No evidence of an association between breast cancer and total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated dietary fat intake.
Author address
USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9181, USA. mgago@usc.edu