Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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A functional polymorphism in the progesterone receptor gene is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk
De Vivo, I., Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J. Cancer Research. 2003. 63:17, 5236-8.
Topic area
Body size - Genetic variability
Study design
Nested case-control study
Funding agency
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Women in the Nurses' Health Study. Incident cases confirmed by chart-review for pathology confirmation. Cohort controls matched on year of birth, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, time/month/fasting at blood draw.
Exposures investigated
BMI, PGR +331 allele frequencies, used PCR-RFLP
How exposure was measured
Biological Questionnaire, self-administered
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Logistic regression analysis of PGR +331 genotype and breast cancer, including effect modification by BMI
Strength of associations reported
In full sample, those with mutant A allele (AG or AA) showed increased risk over wild type heterozygote, OR=1.33 (1.01-1.74)
Risk varied by level of BMI, but interaction term was not significant (p=0.10);BMI <25, OR=1.06 (CI: 0.72-1.56) for A allele (AG or AA); BMI >=25 and <30, OR=1.98 (CI: 1.16-3.39); BMI>=30, OR=2.30 (CI: 1.02-5.21)