Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Intake of conjugated linoleic acid, fat, and other fatty acids in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer
Voorrips, L. E., Brants, H. A., Kardinaal, A. F., Hiddink, G. J., van den Brandt, P. A., Goldbohm, R. A. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002. 76:4, 873-82.
Study design
Prospective case-cohort
Funding agency
Other: Dutch Dairy Foundation for Nutrition and he
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Subcohort: 1,598, cohort 62,573
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study; aged 55-69 years in 1986, originating from 204 municipalities with computerized population registeries Ex: Women who reported prevalent cancer at baseline other than non-melanoma skin cancer, subjects without microscopically confirmed cancer, subjects with in situ carcinoma, and subjects with incomplete or inconsistent dietary data.
Exposures investigated
Total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, transunsaturated, milk and milk products, whole milk and products
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered, FFQ
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: Race
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Adjusted RR with 95% CI, highest verus lowest quintile of intake, mean follow-up 6.3 years, latency 2 years
Strength of associations reported
Total fat: 1.16 (0.87-1.56), saturated fat: 1.40 (0.97-2.03); monounsaturated fat: 0.61 (0.38-0.96); polyunsaturated: 0.88 (0.65-1.21); trans-unsaturated fat: 1.30 (0.93-1.80); milk and milk products 0.91 (0.67 - 1.24); whole milk and products 0.90 (0.66 - 1.22)
Results Comments
No relation was observed between intake of energy, total fat, or polyunsaturated fat and breast cancer incidence. Intake of saturated fat showed a slightly positive non-significant association with breast cancer incidence. No association was observed between intake of linoleic acid and breast cancer incidence.
Author address
Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, Netherlands. voorrips@voeding.tno.nl