Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Dietary carotenoids and risk of breast cancer
Terry, P., Jain, M., Miller, A. B., Howe, G. R., Rohan, T. E. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002. 76:4, 883-8.
Study design
Prospective case-cohort
Funding agency
NCI of Canada
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Pre menopausal
Number in Cohort
Subcohort: 5,422/ cohort: 56,837
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Women participating in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (CNBSS) aged 40-59 years at recruitment and who completed a self-administered, quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Ex: Dietary questionnaire not available
Comment about participation selection
Large cohort, relative long-term follow-up
Exposure Investigated
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered, FFQ
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: Race
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
IRR with 95% CI, highest versus lowest quintile of intake. Subgroups for smoking; menopausal status; alcohol, folic acid, fat, and energy consumption; BMI; and family history of breast cancer. Separate analysis for a latency period of one year, average fo
Strength of associations reported
Beta-carotene 1.01 (0.7-1.33)
Results Comments
No clear association between intake of beta-carotene and breast cancer risk in the study population as a whole or in subgroups defined by smoking status; relative body weight; intake of total fat; energy, alcohol and folic acid; family history of breast cancer; or menopausal status.
Author address
Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. pterry@aecom.yu.edu