Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
Print this page
Polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme XPD are associated with increased levels of PAH-DNA adducts in a case-control study of breast cancer
Tang, D., Cho, S., Rundle, A., Chen, S., Phillips, D., Zhou, J., Hsu, Y., Schnabel, F., Estabrook, A., Perera, F. P. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002. 75:2, 159-66.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - PAH, XPD DNA repair enzyme
Study design
Case-control - hospital-based
Funding agency
Not reported
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Breast surgery patients > 35 and < 75 years of age with first breast cancer compared with benign breast disease without atypia. Patients with prior cancer (other than basal skin cancer), current pregnancy, recent bone fracture, or recent breastfeeding were excluded.
Exposures investigated
PAH-DNA adducts and DNA repair enzyme XPD polymorphisms at codons 312 (Asp/Asp), 751 (Lys/Gln) in tumor, nontumor, and benign breast tissue
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary breast cancer
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Students' t-test, ANOVA, linear regression
Strength of associations reported
No association between XPD codon 312, 751 polymorphisms and case-control status. Codon 312 Asn alleles were associated with higher PAH-DNA adduct levels in tumor tissue, but not nontumor or benign tissue. Increasing codon 751 Gln alleles were associated with higher PAH-DNA adduct levels, but not nontumor or benign tissue.
Results Comments
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) enzyme family are "hypothesized to result in reduced capability to repair DNA damage and increased cancer risk." The NER pathway repairs damage typical of PAH-DNA adducts. Results do not indicate an association of XPD polymorphisms with breast cancer, but the association in tumor tissue suggests a possible role in progression.
Author address
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.