Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Risk factors for breast cancer in Jordanian women
Petro-Nustas, W., Norton, M. E., al-Masarweh, I. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2002. 34:1, 19-25.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant
Study design
Funding agency
Not reported
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Not reported
Number of Controls
Controls: 100
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Living women diagnosed with breast cancer in 1996 as reported to the cancer registry
Comment about participation selection
The large proportion of identified cases who were deceased or could not be located and the use of a convenience sample of controls limits usefulness of this study.
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Use of hair dye, garden pesticides, cleaning chemicals
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person
Exposure assessment comment
Inadequate information is provided to evaluate the questionnaire. Bias in self-reporting is a possible threat to validity.
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Arab women
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Reproductive history and other risk factors taken into account
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Odds ratio analysis and logistic regression
Strength of associations reported
Strength of association is not entered, because of likely bias in participant ascertainment and exposure assessment.
Results Comments
Methodological weaknesses make this study of limited use for evaluating breast cancer etiology, but it reminds researchers of the gap in knowledge about this disease in Arab populations. Authors state that 62% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Jordan in 1996 were less than 53 years old; 35% died within 3 years.
Author address
Hashemite University, P.O. Box 13133, Zarka, Jordan. wasipn@hu.edu.jo
Controls participation rate
Convenience sample