Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
Print this page
Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies
Missmer, S. A., Smith-Warner, S. A., Spiegelman, D., Yaun, S. S., Adami, H. O., Beeson, W. L., van den Brandt, P. A., Fraser, G. E., Freudenheim, J. L., Goldbohm, R. A., Graham, S., Kushi, L. H., Miller, A. B., Potter, J. D., Rohan, T. E., Speizer, F. E., Toniolo, P., Willett, W. C., Wolk, A., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., Hunter, D. J. Int J Epidemiol. 2002. 31:1, 78-85.
Study design
Pooled analysis of cohort studies
Funding agency
NIH, Wallace Genetic Foundation
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal and premenopausal combined and separate
Number in Cohort
Cohort 351,041
Country where study was conducted
USA, studies from USA, Canada, Netherlands, Sweden
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Pooling Project. Study initially included at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, diet assessment at baseline using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire, availability of a validation study of the diet assessment instrument or closely related instrument. Follow-up was conducted via questionnaires and the inspection of medical records and/or linkage to tumor and death registries and was estimated to be more than 90% complete in all cohorts. Ex: Study specific exclusion criteria, reported total energy intakes greater or less than three standard deviations from the study specific log-e transformed mean energy intake of the baseline population, or had been diagnosed before baseline with any cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer.
Comment about participation selection
Heterogeneity of methodology
Exposures investigated
Total dairy fluids, total dairy solids, whole milk
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered, FFQ
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: Race
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Single pooled estimate RR weighted by the inverse of their variance, with 95% CI; total dairy fluids and solids RR: highest versus lowest quartile of intake, milk RR: for a 100-g increment consumption. Stratified by menopausal status, follow-up 15 years
Strength of associations reported
All women: total dairy fluids: 0.93 (0.84-1.03); total dairy solid: 1.01 (0.93-1.09); whole milk: 0.99 (0.96-1.01)
Premenopausal: total dairy fluids: 1.00 (0.98-1.01); total dairy solid: 1.05 (0.94-1.16)
Postmenopausal: total dairy fluids: 0.96 (0.90-1.02); total dairy solid: 0.87 (0.68-1.11)
Results Comments
No relation with dairy product, analyzed as total dairy fluids, total dairy solids, or milk was found.
Author address
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115-6096, USA. stacey.missmer@channing.harvard.edu