Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Serum carotenoids and breast cancer
Toniolo, P., Van Kappel, A. L., Akhmedkhanov, A., Ferrari, P., Kato, I., Shore, R. E., Riboli, E. Am J Epidemiol. 2001. 153:12, 1142-7.
Study design
Nested case-control
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Pre menopausal
Number in Cohort
Controls: 270/ cohort: 14,275
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Volunteer women participating to the New York University Women's Health Study, ages 35-65 at recruitment in 1985-1991 Ex:: Cancer diagnosis 6 months or less after cohort enrollment
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Exposure assessment comment
Only one serum sample measure, storage length between 6 months and 11.2 years, transatlantic tranportation of serum samples
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: BMI, parity, race, alcohol consumption
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
OR with 95% CI, lowest versus highest quintile of serum level, follow-up 4-10 years
Results Comments
Evident increase in the risk of breast cancer with decreasing serum concentration of beta-carotene.
Author address
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. paolo.toniolo@med.nyu.edu