Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Dioxin exposure and public health in Chapaevsk, Russia
Revich, B., Aksel, E., Ushakova, T., Ivanova, I., Zhuchenko, N., Klyuev, N., Brodsky, B., Sotskov, Y. Chemosphere. 2001. 43:4-7, 951-66.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - dioxin
Study design
Other: Surveillance
Study Participants
Number of Cases
58 breast cancer deaths; number of incident cases not reported
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Chapaevsk, Russia, deaths in 1995-1998 compared with Samara Region; Incident cases in Chapaevsk, Samara Region, and Russia in 1998
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Dioxin exposure. Location of residence at time of diagnosis or death in Chapaevsk, Russia
How exposure was measured
GIS/geographic location
Exposure assessment comment
Ecologic measure, may be confounded by other exposures
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary breast cancer
Mortality from breast cancer
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Only age is taken into account
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Standardized mortality and incidence ratios
Strength of associations reported
Standardized Mortality Ratio = 2.1 (95% CI 1.6-2.7)
Standardized Incidence Ratio: Chapaevsk = 69.6; Russia = 46.2; Samara Reion= 50.7
Results Comments
Soil, drinking water, cow's milk are dioxin contaminated. Private home owners grow nearly all their vegetables and fruit, adding dioxin load, due to soil contamination. Life expectancy declined over the last decade. Effects on birth outcomes are seen.
Author address
Center for Demography and Human Ecology of Institute for Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation. revich@mail.ecfor.rssi.ru