Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Relations of insulin resistance and serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin to potential breast cancer risk factors
Nagata, C., Shimizu, H., Takami, R., Hayashi, M., Takeda, N., Yasuda, K. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 2000. 91:9, 948-53.
Topic area
Body size
Study design
Other: Cross sectional analysis
Funding agency
Other: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Cohort: 88
Cohort participation rate
Retention/participation exceeded 70% for exposed a
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: postmenopausal women who participated in the health check-up program at a general hospital in Gifu, Japan; completed a self-administered questionnaire between 9/96 and 8/97 Ex: history of breast or ovarian cancer; took hormone replacement therapy hormones at baseline; had a metabolic or endocrine disease; had thyroid disease
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: analyzed nutrient and food intake per day; analyzed exercise habits; analyzed serum concentrations of estradiol and SHBG with body size and exercise Limitations: small study of only 88 post women; possibility that immunoreactivities that cross-react with the estradiol assay might have affected the findings; only drew blood once from each participant; not population based; did not assess the direct relationship between insulin resistance and estrogen profile with breast cancer; anthropometric data self-reported
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Height, weight, BMI
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered
Exposure assessment comment
Anthropometric data self-reported
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Japanese Women
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled, confounders: age, fasting insulin concentration and ratio of estradiol to sex hormone-binding globulin ratio
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Results Comments
Weight and BMI were significantly correlated with fasting plasma insulin levels and HOMA-R, which is a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Weight and BMI were significantly correlated to the ratio of estradiol to SHBG
Author address
Departments of Public Health, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu 500-8705, Japan. chisato@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp