Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Breast cancer and occupational exposures in women in Finland
Weiderpass, E., Pukkala, E., Kauppinen, T., Mutanen, P., Paakkulainen, H., Vasama-Neuvonen, K., Boffetta, P., Partanen, T. Am J Ind Med. 1999. 36:1, 48-53.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - Occupation
Funding agency
Finnish Work Environment Fund
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Cohort: 892,591 women
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Women listing an occupation in 1970 census.
Comment about participation selection
Authors cite other studies that indicate cross-sectional job classification does not differ from full occupational history, but does this apply to women?
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Job exposure matrix applied to occupation in 1970. Probability and level of exposure.
Exposure assessment comment
Exposures to women and men were not differentiated.
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Ecologic control for social class, mean number of children, mean age at first birth, turnover rate.
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Job-title specific standardized incidence ratio. Women in each job compared to economically active women.
Strength of associations reported
Postmenopausal women
Aromatic hydrocarbons medium/high SIR 1.14 (1.00-1.30)
Textile dust medium/high SIR 1.14 (1.06-1.23)
No elevated risk: formaldehyde, other organic solvents, gasoline, metals, engine exhaust, pesticides
Author address
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Elisabete.Weiderpass@MEP.KI.SE