Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Obesity, weight change, fasting insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in women with and without breast cancer: the Rancho Bernardo Study
Jernstrom, H., Barrett-Connor, E. Journal of Womens Health & Gender-Based Medicine. 1999. 8:10, 1265-72.
Topic area
Body size
Study design
Other: case-control
Funding agency
Other: National Institute of Diabetes Digestive an
Study Participants
Number of Cases
45 (postmenopausal)
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number of Controls
Controls: 393 (postmenopausal)
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study; no history of cancer; did not use estrogen replacement therapy, tamoxifen, or insulin during the 1992-1994 visit; age 53-90 years; had anthropometric measurements taken in 1972-1974 and in 1992-1994 Ex: current estrogen users
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: analyzed the relationship between breast cancer and body composition, IGF-1, proinsulin, C-peptide and fasting insulin; anthropometric data obtained by trained staff at two different times Limitations: OR not included in analysis; study not population based; obtained cases and controls from the Rancho Bernardo Study; very few cases
Exposures investigated
BMI, weight, WHR, height
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person Anthropometric measurement, researcher-administered
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Results Comments
Women who developed breast cancer between 1972-1974 and 1992-1994 had gained significantly more weight than women without breast cancer.