Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Effect of body size on breast-cancer risk among Japanese women
Hirose, K., Tajima, K., Hamajima, N., Takezaki, T., Inoue, M., Kuroishi, T., Miura, S., Tokudome, S. International Journal of Cancer. 1999. 80:3, 349-55.
Topic area
Body size
Study design
Hospital based case-referent
Funding agency
Other: Ministry of Health and Welfare (Japan)
Study Participants
Number of Cases
1359 (654 pre) (439 post)
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
pre menopausal
post menopausal
Number of Controls
Referents: 24,207
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: women age 30 or older; participants of the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC); first-visit outpatients diagnosed with breast cancer between 1/89 and 6/95 (cases); first-visit outpatients who had never been diagnosed with breast cancer (referents); women who completed a self-administered questionnaire Ex: women who visited the hospital when the interviewer was absent; women who visited the hospital for consultation only
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: questionnaires were checked by trained interviewers; high participation rate (98.5%); data were collected prior to diagnosis; analyzed breast cancer risk by BMI stratified by menopausal status and age Limitations: anthropometric data were self-reported; possible bias caused by using hospital-based non cancer patients as referents; unable to validate self-reported information
Exposure Investigated
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered
Exposure assessment comment
Anthropometric data were self-reported
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Japanese Women
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled, confounders: age, age at menarche, number of births, age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Effect modifiers: menopausal status and age
Strength of associations reported
Association between breast cancer and BMI, >24.13 vs. <19.73, OR=1.42(1.18-1.72) trend p<0.001
Association between premenopausal breast cancer and BMI, >24.13 vs. <19.73, OR=1.11(0.85-1.45) trend p=0.53
Association between postmenopausal breast cancer and BMI, >24.13 vs. <19.73, OR=2.08(1.49-2.92) trend p<0.001
Association between breast cancer and BMI in women age 30-39, >24.13 vs. <19.73, OR=1.81(1.06-3.08) trend p=0.05
Association between breast cancer and BMI in women age 60 and over, >24.13 vs. <19.73, OR=2.19(1.45-3.31) trend p<0.001