Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Parental age and risk of sporadic and familial cancer in offspring: implications for germ cell mutagenesis
Hemminki, K., Kyyronen, P. Epidemiology. 1999. 10:6, 747-51.
Topic area
Early life exposures
Study design
Prospective cohort
Funding agency
Other: King Gustav V Jubilee fund, Swedish Coucil
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Number in Cohort
Cohort: 37877
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Swedish Family-Cancer Database, Children born in Sweden in 1941 and later, registered with their biologic parents as families in the Generation Register, cases were diagnosed for their primary cancer during the years 1958-1994 at ages 15-53 years. Ex: Children who have died before or in 1960, individuals with a previous childhood cancer, missing age at birth for one or both parents.
Comment about participation selection
Large cohort, data reported in the register are limited to analyze interaction with other factors
Exposures investigated
Maternal age and paternal age
How exposure was measured
Other: Family Cancer database
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary incident breast cancer
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Age, BMI, race, parity, menopausal status, alcohol consumption, family history of breast cancer
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Poisson regression adjusted for age of spouse (father or mother), year of diagnosis and birth order). RR with 95% CI; maternal age: 40-49 years versus <20 years, paternal age: 40-59 years versus < 25 years. Separate analysis evaluated the incidence of fam
Strength of associations reported
Maternal age: 1.07 (0.91-1.27); paternal age: 1.06 (0.94-1.18)
Results Comments
A weak tendency for an upward slope toward older parental ages
Author address
Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.