Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Maternal factors and breast cancer risk among young women
Sanderson, M., Williams, M. A., Daling, J. R., Holt, V. L., Malone, K. E., Self, S. G., Moore, D. E. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1998. 12:4, 397-407.
Topic area
Early life exposures
Study design
Population based case-control
Funding agency
NCI and University of Washington Graduate School F
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Number of Controls
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: women under the age of 45 years diagnosed between January 1983 and December 1992 in three western Washington counties. Ex: Deceased mothers, mothers who were unable to complete the questionnaire because of illness or language barrier and subjects who were adopted
Comment about participation selection
Low participation because of the 2 levels of information (subjects and mothers) required
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Birth weight, gestational age, pregnancy weight gain, hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, coffee and alcohol consumption, DES use
How exposure was measured
Other: Reported by mothers of participants
Exposure assessment comment
Recall bias, misclassification due to mother's recalling (long period of time and confusion with other pregnancy and delivery from siblings), accuracy of diagnosis of premature delivery in week, accuracy of reported diagnosis of hypertensive diseases
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary incident breast cancer
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Logistic regression model. Covariates were considered including age, birth year, reference year, family history, age at menarche, menopause status, occurrence of a full-term pregnancy, age at first full-term pregnancy, BMI at reference date, infertility,
Strength of associations reported
Birthweight:1.3 (0.7-2.3); gestatonal age: 0.9 (0.5-1.8); pregnancy weight gain: 1.2 (0.8-1.7); hypertension: 1.0 (0.4-1.5); pre-eclampsia/eclampsia: 0.8 (0.4-1.5); coffee: 1.1 (0.8-1.6); alcohol: 0.8 (0.4-1.5); DES: 2.3 (0.8-6.4)
Results Comments
No association between perinatal factors that reflect low pregnancy oestrogen levels and breast cancer risk in the daughter.
Author address
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208, USA.
Controls participation rate
More than 70% of subjects and more than 70% of eli