Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Parental age in relation to risk of breast cancer
Newcomb, P. A., Trentham-Dietz, A., Storer, B. E. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997. 6:3, 151-4.
Topic area
Early life exposures
Study design
Population based case-control
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Number of Controls
Controls: 1121
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Cases: female residents of Wisconsin with a new diagnosis of invasive breast cancer who were under 75 years, identified from the statewide cancer registry from April 1988 through December 1991, eligibility was limited to cases with a driver's licence if less than 65 years of age and to those with a Medicare card (if over age 65) In: controls: randomly selected females from the Wisconsin population using two sampling frames: those under 65 years of age were selected from a list of licensed drivers; subject over age 65 through 74 years of age were selected from a roster of Medicare beneficiaries provided by Health Care Financing Administration. Ex: women not listed on the telephone registry and subjects with missing parental age
Comment about participation selection
In person follow-up, allows control for other factors related to breast cancer
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Maternal age, paternal age
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, by telephone
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary incident breast cancer
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Logistic regression model adjusted for age, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, BMI, family history, personal history of benign breast disease and recent alcohol intake. Adjusted OR with 95% CI, maternal age and paternal age: >
Strength of associations reported
Maternal age: 1.19 (0.94-1.51), paternal age: 0.92 (0.71-1.19)
Results Comments
Overall, parental age was not associated with the risk of breast cancer
Author address
University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison 53706, USA.