Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Associations of alcohol, height, and reproductive factors with serum hormone concentrations in postmenopausal Japanese women. Steroid hormones in Japanese postmenopausal women
Nagata, C., Kabuto, M., Takatsuka, N., Shimizu, H. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment. 1997. 44:3, 235-41.
Topic area
Body size
Funding agency
Other: Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Cohort: 68 (post only)
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Postmenopausal participants of the Takayama Study randomly selected who gave blood samples Ex: women with diabetes mellitus; women who used HRT for more than 3 years; premenopausal women
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: obtained physical activity data, analyzed association between anthropometric breast cancer risk factors and serum estradiol levels, sex hormone-binding globulin levels (SHBG), progesterone levels and DHEAS levels Limitations: low participation rate of less than 25%; small cohort; anthropometric data were self-reported
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Height, weight and BMI
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person
Exposure assessment comment
Anthropometric data were self-reported
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled, confounders: age, history of hysterectomy
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Results Comments
Height and weight were moderately associated with serum estradio levels and statistically significant positive trends were observed BMI was inversely associated with SHBG and progesterone levels after controlling for age