Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Intake of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer
Knekt, P., Jarvinen, R., Seppanen, R., Pukkala, E., Aromaa, A. Br J Cancer. 1996. 73:5, 687-91.
Study design
Prospective cohort
Funding agency
Other:Swedish Cancer Foundation
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Postmenopausal and premenopausal combined
Number in Cohort
Cohort 4,697
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Women aged 15-90 years old and free from cancer, participating in the Finnish Social Insurance Institution’s Mobile Clinic Health Survey
Comment about participation selection
Small cohort, long follow-up
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Dairy products
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person
Exposure assessment comment
Number of food items in the questionnaire not reported
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: BMI, family history of breast cancer, parity, race, alcohol intake, menopausal status
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Age adjusted RR with 95% CI, highest versus lowest tertile of intake, follow-up 25 years
Strength of associations reported
All dairy products: 0.42 (0.23-0.78); milk: 0.42 (0.24-0.74)
Results Comments
Milk consumption is inversely associated with breast cancer occurrence.
Author address
National Public Health Insitute, Helsinki, Finland.