Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Increased concentrations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in cases with breast cancer--results from a case-control study
Hardell, L., Lindstrom, G., Liljegren, G., Dahl, P., Magnuson, A. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 1996. 5:5, 351-7.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - Dioxin
Study design
Hospital based case-control
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Number of Controls
Controls: 19
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
41 consecutive patients operated on in 1993-1995, no previous cancer, no in situ disease
Comment about participation selection
Controls with benign breast disease are not representative of the general population.
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tumor-free breast tissue
Exposure assessment comment
Exposure measured near time of diagnosis may not be relevant to etiologic period.
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary breast cancer: Invasive, receptor status, S-phase, and ploidy
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Family history, parity, lactation, hormone therapy, menopausal status, smoking, age at first birth, BMI
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Adjustment in multivariate conditional logistic regression for potential risk factors, Student's t-test for differences in PCDD and PCDF concentration according to receptor status, S-phase, and ploidy.
Strength of associations reported
No significant differences. OCDD as a continuous variable yields increased adjusted OR 1.09 (0.95 - 1.25) per 100 unit (pg/g lipid) increase in OCDD.
Results Comments
Small study results in wide confidence intervals. Exposure range may be low compared with some other populations.
Author address
Department of Oncology, Orebro Medical Center, Sweden.