Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Dietary fat and postmenopausal breast cancer
Kushi, L. H., Sellers, T. A., Potter, J. D., Nelson, C. L., Munger, R. G., Kaye, S. A., Folsom, A. R. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992. 84:14, 1092-9.
Study design
Prospective cohort
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Cohort 34,388
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Women in the Iowa Women's Health Study, aged 55-69 years, whose name appeared on the 1985 driver's license list for Iowa. Ex: Not postmenopausal, had a mastectomy or partial breast removal, any previous cancer other than skin cancer. FFQ partially completed, response resulted in extreme total energy intake values.
Exposures investigated
Fat intake: total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and carbohydrate (CH)
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered, FFQ
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: Race
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Adjusted RR with 95% CI, higher versus lower quartile of macronutrient intake residuals, four different methods of adjustment for total energy intake, follow-up 4 years
Strength of associations reported
Total fat: 1.16 (0.87-1.55); saturated fat: 1.10 (0.83-1.46); monounsaturated fat: 1.08 (0.80-1.46); polyunsaturated fat: 1.15 (0.87-1.52); CHI: 0.90 (0.70-1.21)
Results Comments
Non-significant positive association between dietary fat and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
Author address
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454.