Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Diet in the epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in the New York State Cohort
Graham, S., Zielezny, M., Marshall, J., Priore, R., Freudenheim, J., Brasure, J., Haughey, B., Nasca, P., Zdeb, M. Am J Epidemiol. 1992. 136:11, 1327-37.
Study design
Prospective cohort
Funding agency
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Cohort: 18,586
Cohort participation rate
Less than 70% (21.1%)
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Women in the NY State Cohort who had resided at the same address and listed on the phone directory in NY state for at least 18 years Ex: Have a cancer by 1980, younger than 50 years at the time of filling out the questionnaire, unusable questionnaire
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: Good follow-up of respondents Limits: Low response rate of the initial cohort, selection of women on very specific criteria resulting in a cohort with a more white women, higher socio-economic status, less children and older than the general population of New-York state.
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Vitamin A, carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, total fat
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered, FFQ
Exposure assessment comment
45 food items questionnaire
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: BMI, parity, race, alcohol consumption, family history of breast cancer
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Adjusted RR with 95% CI, higher versus lower quintile of intake, follow-up 7 years
Strength of associations reported
Vitamin A: 0.96 (CI: 0.68-1.34); carotene: 0.89 (CI: 0.63-1.26); vitamin E:0.86 (CI: 0.61-1.21); vitamin C: 0.81(CI:0.59-1.12)
Total fat: 0.99 (0.69-1.41)
Results Comments
No association between nutrient intake and risk of breast cancer.
Author address
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York 14214.