Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Maternal age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters
Thompson, W. D., Janerich, D. T. Epidemiology. 1990. 1:2, 101-6.
Topic area
Early life exposures
Study design
Population based case-control
Funding agency
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Number of Controls
Controls: 2687
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Cases were obtained from 8 areas of the United States served by population-based registries, between the age of 20 and 54 and were diagnosed between December 1, 1980 and December 31, 2002 with histologically confirmed first primary cancer of the breast, Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. In: controls: were identified by random-digit dialing during the perid of accrual of cases, in each of the geographic areas covered by participating registries,Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. Ex: Women who died, had a debilitating illness, or could not be interviewed within 6 months of diagnosis or enrollement or if they had missing information on the vital status of their mother or on potential confounding factors, controls were also excluded if they had a prior history of breast cancer, or if they had missing information about prior history of breast cancer
Exposure Investigated
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, by telephone
Exposure assessment comment
Self-reported data, recall bias
Statistical Analysis
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary incident breast cancer
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Alcohol consumption
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Logistic regression model adjusted for parity, age at first term pregnancy, total duration of breast-feeding, race, age at menarche, menopausal status, BMI, family history, personal history of benign breast disease. Adjusted OR with 95% CI for a different
Strength of associations reported
Parous daughters: OR=1.25 (1.08, 1.46); Nulliparous daughters: OR=1.07 (0.70, 1.43)
Results Comments
Incidence of breast cancer in a daughter increases with the age of her mother at the time of the daughter's birth
Author address
Department of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Southern Maine, Portland 04103.