Evidence From Humans
 
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Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea
Park, B., Shin, A., Jung-Choi, K., Ha, E., Cheong, H. K., Kim, H. J., Park, K. H., Jang, S., Moon, B. I., Ha, M. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014. 15:7, 2959-64.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - Air pollution
Study design
Ecologic
Funding agency
National Institute of Environmental Research, Repu
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
No analysis based on menopausal status
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Breast cancer incidence from the Korea Central Cancer Registry was collected from 1999-2010. Breast cancer mortality from the Korean Statistical Information Service was collected from 1983-2010. Incidence and mortality rates were both age standardized to the 2000 world population.
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Motor vehicle registration was a proxy for vehicle emissions, which include PAHs, benzene and other VOCs, and particulate matter. National vehicle registration was collected from 1966 to 2010, data from 11 regions were available in 1980, and data from all
How exposure was measured
Geographic location
Exposure assessment comment
It is unclear how well motor vehicle registration and gasoline consumption serve as proxies for PAH, VOC, and PM exposure.
Breast cancer outcome investigated
Primary incident breast cancer
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Age
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
No
Strength of associations reported
Correlation between motor vehicle registration and breast cancer incidence in 2010 and correlation between gasoline consumption and breast cancer incidence in 2010 with a 20, 15, and 10 year lag was calculated.

Amount of variation (r-squared) in breast cancer incidence in Korea's 16 provinces that could be explained by variation in the number of registered motor vehicles:
20 years prior: 38% (p=0.019)
15 years prior: 36% (p=0.017)
10 years prior: 34% (p=0.017)

Amount of variation (r-squared) in breast cancer incidence in Korea's 16 provinces that could be explained by variation in gasoline consumption:
20 years prior: 35% (p=0.021)
15 years prior: 32% (p=0.028)
10 years prior: 31% (p=0.026)
Author address
National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea E-mail : minaha00@gmail. com, eunheeha@ewha.ac.kr.
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