Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
Print this page
Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of incident breast cancer in postmenopausal women
Jonas, C. R., McCullough, M. L., Teras, L. R., Walker-Thurmond, K. A., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003. 12:6, 573-7.
Study design
Prospective cohort
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Post menopausal
Number in Cohort
Cohort: 63,307
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Female participant in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS II), 50-74 years of age in 1992 Ex: Women who: were lost of follow-up, reported at baseline prevalent breast or other cancer, or history of diabetes, were not post-menopausal, did not meet the a priori criteria of daily energy intake or had more than 10 questions blank on the dietary questionnaire
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI)
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, self-administered, FFQ
Exposure assessment comment
68 food items FFQ
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Confounding was adequately controlled
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Adjusted RR with 95% CI, higher versus lower quintile of intake, analysis by stage of breast cancer, follow-up 5 years
Strength of associations reported
GL:0.9 (0.76-1.08) ; GI: 1.03 (0.87-1.22)
Results Comments
Dietary glycemic load and index were not associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
Author address
Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia 30329-4251, USA. jonasclyn@aol.com