Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Obesity and height in urban Nigerian women with breast cancer
Adebamowo, C. A., Ogundiran, T. O., Adenipekun, A. A., Oyesegun, R. A., Campbell, O. B., Akang, E. U., Rotimi, C. N., Olopade, O. I. Annals of Epidemiology. 2003. 13:6, 455-61.
Topic area
Body size -
Study design
Population based case-control (cases from hospital, controls from community)
Funding agency
Other: Falk Medical Research Trust
Study Participants
Number of Cases
234 (mostly advanced disease, no screening in population)
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Number of Controls
Controls: 273
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: Over 18 yrs at baseline, cancer free at recruitment, urban resident and diagnosed with histologically confirmed breast cancer between 3/98 and 8/2000 (cases) Ex: Rural resident
Comment about participation selection
Strengths: Body measurements were taken by trained nurse practitioners, in person interviews Limitations: Small study with few obese participants, many cases were excluded due to rural residence, cases were hospital based while controls were population based, limited exposures
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Height, obesity (BMI>30)
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person
Exposure assessment comment
Many cases were excluded due to rural residence
Statistical Analysis
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
African Women
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Adequately controlled, Confounders: age, age at onset of menarche, regularity of period, social status and age at first full term pregnancy
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Description of major analysis
Effect modifiers: menopausal status
Strength of associations reported
Association between breast cancer risk and height, trend per cm increase, OR=1.05(1.01-1.08) p=0.05
Association between breast cancer risk and BMI, trend per unit increase, OR=1.00(0.96-1.04)
Results Comments
Taller height assoc. with increased risk in pre and post women, 5% increase in risk per cm increase in height (95% CI, 1%-8%). No significant results for BMI Mean BMI: cases 25.1, controls 24.2
Author address
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. clement.adebamowo@channing.harvard.edu