Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Cancer risk and residential proximity to cranberry cultivation in Massachusetts
Aschengrau, A., Ozonoff, D., Coogan, P., Vezina, R., Heeren, T., Zhang, Y. American Journal of Public Health. 1996. 86:9, 1289-96.
Topic area
Environmental pollutant - Pesticide
Study design
Population based case-control
Funding agency
Not reported
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Pre menopausal
Post menopausal
Number of Controls
Controls: 1371
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
Participants of the Upper Cape Cancer Study. cases: diagnosed in 1983-1986 and residing on Upper Cape Cod at diagnosis controls: residents of Upper Cape Cod selected from telephone subscribers, Medicare beneficiaries, and deceased
Exposure Investigated
Exposures investigated
Residence within 2600 ft (0.5 mi, 780 m) of cranberry bog visible in aerial photographs in 1951, 1971, or 1984
How exposure was measured
GIS/geographic location Questionnaire, by telephone
Exposure assessment comment
Exposure from cranberry bogs involves chemicals for which there are other agricultural/nonagricultural uses; occupational exposure (including work in cranberry cultivation) and home pesticide use from gardening and termite treatment were controlled (though info is problematic for deceased subjects). Distance is a crude measure of extent of drift. No information about behaviors, such as time outside, that affect exposure.
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Confounders were extensively controlled.
Genetic characterization included
If the study analyzed relationships between environmental factors and inherited genetic variations, this field will be marked “Yes.” “No”, if not.
Strength of associations reported
Adjusted OR (CI) [n cases]
no latency 1.2 (0.8 - 1.6) [90]
with latency: 1.3 (.9 - 2.0) [47]
Author address
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Boston University School of PPublic Health, MA 02118, USA.