Environment and Breast Cancer: Science Review

Evidence From Humans
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Intake of fried meat and risk of cancer: a follow-up study in Finland
Knekt, P., Steineck, G., Jarvinen, R., Hakulinen, T., Aromaa, A. Int J Cancer. 1994. 59:6, 756-60.
Topic area
Diet - Heterocyclic amines
Study design
Prospective cohort
Funding agency
Swedish Cancer Foundation
Study Participants
Menopausal Status
The menopausal status of women included in this study is listed here.
Premenopausal and postmenopausal combined
Number of Controls
95,611 person years
Cohort participation rate
For the entire cohort 82.5%
Participant selection: Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Criteria used to select participants in the study.
In: 15 years or older, dietary histories available, cancer free, participating in the Finnish Social Insurance Institution’s Mobile Clinic Health Survey
Comment about participation selection
Small cohort, long follow-up 500 different food items were recorded and food models were used to determine portion sizes
How exposure was measured
Questionnaire, in person
Ethnic groups with separate analysis
If this study provided a separate analysis by ethnic or racial group, the groups are listed here.
Confounders considered
Other breast cancer risk factors, such as family history, age at first birth, and hormone replacement therapy use, that were taken into account in the study.
Not considered: Family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, alcohol consumption, race, parity
Description of major analysis
Age adjusted RR with 95% CI, highest vs. lowest tertile of intake, follow-up 25 years
Strength of associations reported
Fried meat: 1.80 (1.03 - 3.16)
Results Comments
Positive association between fried meat and breast cancer
Author address
Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki, Finland.